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China

Basics
Banks
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Banking landscape

Chinese banks have become an undeniable force in international finance.  By the first quarter of 2009 the world financial status quo was turned on its head and three Chinese banks - Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)China Construction Bank, and Bank of China - ranked as the top three banks in the world, respectively.

As Chinese banks grow in size, they are also expanding their global reach, with lenders such as China Development Bank, China Export-Import Bank, ICBC and Bank of China leading the way. Some Chinese banks, such as ICBC (which now owns a 20% stake in South Africa's Standard Bank), are buying stakes in their foreign peers.

Bank Regulation 

The Chinese financial sector is supervised by two major entities:

The People's Bank of China operates as China's central bank performing the following major supervisory functions:

  • Drafting and enforcing relevant laws, rules and regulations that are related to fulfilling its functions; Formulating and implementing monetary policy in accordance with law;
  • Regulating financial markets, including the inter-bank lending market, the inter-bank bond market, foreign exchange market and gold market; 
  • Preventing and mitigating systemic financial risks to safeguard financial stability; Providing guidance to anti-money laundering work in the financial sector and monitoring money-laundering related suspicious fund movement; 
  • Administering credit reporting industry in China and promoting the building up of credit information system;
  • Engaging in financial business operations in line with relevant rules.

The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) also plays a supervisory role with focuses on:

  • Conducting supervision to assess, monitor and mitigate the overall risks of each banking institution as a legal entity;
  • Staying focused on risk-based supervision and improvement of supervisory process and methods;
  • Urging banks to put in place and maintain a system of internal controls;
  • Enhancing supervisory transparency in line with international standards and practices.

Apart from those two, the China Banking Association is the national organization of Chinese banks.

Government policy on sustainable banking

Starting in July 2007, Chinese government launched a series of policies to curb banks' contribution to pollution and energy-inefficiency, including:

  • The Green IPO policy, which requires companies to receive approval from the Ministry of Environmental Protection as a part of the public listing process;
  • The Green Credit Policy (2007) which requires banks to ensure that corporate borrowers comply with environmental regulations;
  • The Green Credit Guidelines (2012), which establish green credit guidance for the Chinese financial sector in terms of institutional management, policy systems and capacity building, process management, internal control and transparency.

Since 2009 Chinese NGOs have sought to evaluate individual banks on the quality and implementation of their environmental policies and standards. A summary of their latest report (2012) can be found here.

Voluntary sustainability initiatives Chinese banks have endorsed

As more Chinese banks establish a global presence, some have chosen to sign up to international standards and norms. CDB led the way in 2006 when it endorsed the Global Compact, and since then a few Chinese banks have become signatories to the UNEP Statement by Financial Institutions on the Environment and Sustainable Development (UNEP-FI), the Carbon Disclosure Project, and the Equator Principles.

Not Fulfilling Their Role as Global Leaders

Chinese banks have played an important role in financing Chinese multinational companies to undertake natural resource extraction projects throughout the world. However, the resulting exploitation of resources has been accompanied by serious environmental and social costs to China and other countries in which it invests, which in turn increases the risk profile for these banks. Chinese banks still lag behind international best practice when it comes to environmental credit risk management systems, public reporting, and stakeholder engagement.

BankTrack on Chinese Banks

BankTrack will monitor Chinese banks' adoption of environmental and social financing standards and encourage Chinese banks to do the following:

  • Internationally apply the Green Credit Policy: Currently, the Green Credit Policy is only (poorly) implemented in China.
  • Take steps to ensure that the government's Green Credit and other finance policies do not unintentionally limit banks' understanding of the role and potential of environmental financing practices.

China

Population: 1,344 million (2011)

GDP: 7.31 trillion USD (2011)


working partners
Bank of Beijing
The Bank of Beijing was established in January 1996 and is based in Beijing.  It is a joint-stock commercial bank and has offices throughout China, including Shanghai,…
Bank of China
Bank of China is one of China's Big Four joint-stock commercial banks. Bank of China offers commercial banking, investment banking, insurance, asset management, aircraft…
Bank of Communications
Founded in 1908, the Bank is one of the major financial services providers in China. The Bank's business scope includes commercial banking, insurance and offshore financial…
Bank of Nanjing
Bank of Nanjing is a joint-stock commercial bank that was established in 1996.  The bank provides a full spectrum of financial services and products for individuals,…
Bank of Ningbo
Bank of Ningbo is a shareholding commercial bank that was established in April 1997.  In July 2007 it was listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange.  By September 2011…
China Construction Bank
China Construction Bank (CCB) is a leading commercial bank in China providing a comprehensive range of commercial banking products and services. CCB's business consists of…
China Everbright Bank
China Everbright Bank was established in August 1992 and is headquartered in Beijing.  The bank focuses on the Chinese domestic market and operates in over 60 major…
China Exim Bank
Established in 1994, the China Export-Import Bank (China Exim) is China's official export credit agency, providing export credits, guarantees, concessional loans and on-lending…
China Merchants Bank
China Merchants Bank (CMB) was established in April 1987 and it is headquartered in Shenzhen, China. The bank is China's first joint-stock commercial bank and als the first…
China Minsheng Bank
China Minsheng Bank was founded on January 12, 1996 in Beijing. It is the first bank in China to be owned mostly by non-government run private enterprises. The bank was founded…
CITIC Bank International
CITIC Bank International Limited is a Hong Kong based commercial bank. It was formerly known as CITIC Ka Wah Bank but changed its name in May 2010 in order to mark the completion…
Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse Group was founded in 1856 and is headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland. It serves companies, institutional clients and high-net-worth private clients worldwide,…
Hua Xia Bank
Hua Xia is a state-controlled bank which began its operations in 1992 in Beijing.  In 1995 it underwent restructuring and transformed itself into a country-wide joint…
ICBC
ICBC (Industrial and Commercial Bank of China) is a joint-stock commercial bank based in the People's Republic of China.  Founded in 1984, ICBC overtook Citi to become…
Industrial Bank
The Industrial Bank was founded in 1988 and was one of the first batch of joint-stock commercial banks approved by the State Council and the People's Bank of China. The Industrial…
Ping An Bank
Ping An Bank Co., Ltd. is a Chinese joint-stock commercial bank, formerly known as Shenzhen Development Bank Co., Ltd. In June 2012, Shenzhen Development Bank merged with…
Shanghai Pudong Development Bank
  Shanghai Pudong Development Bank (SPD Bank) was founded in August 1992 and it is a country-wide joint-stock commercial bank.  It went public in 1999 and is listed…

China

Population: 1,344 million (2011)

GDP: 7.31 trillion USD (2011)


working partners
Dodgy Deals located in China
China Tuna Industry Group IPO
China
China Tuna Industry Group Holdings Ltd (CTI), the holding company of Dalian Ocean Fishing Co. Ltd., applied for an initial public offering (IPO) of its shares on the Hong…
AA Coal project
China
check dodgy deals on record
Dodgy Deals abroad financed by banks from China
El Mirador Copper Mine
Ecuador
co financed by Bank of China, China Construction Bank, China Development Bank, China Exim Bank, China Merchants Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
El Mirador is a copper mine project located in the Southeast Ecuador, widely considered one of the most biodiverse regions in the world. In 2010, two Chinese state owned…
Great Barrier Reef Coal & Gas Exports
Australia
co financed by Bank of China, China Development Bank, China Exim Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
Australia is on the verge of an unprecedented coal boom. The epicentre of this expansion is the yet-to-be-developed Galilee Basin in Central Queensland. Galilee is the proposed…
Kaltim Prima Coal mine
Indonesia
co financed by Bank of China, China Development Bank
PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC), located in the province of East Kalimantan, is the biggest coal mine in Indonesia. The KPC project produces around 50 million tonnes a year, making…
Sasan ultra mega coal power project (UMPP)
India
co financed by Bank of China, China Development Bank, China Exim Bank
The Sasan project, also known as the Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP), is a 3,960 megawatt (6x660 megawatt) coal-fired project, located in Sasan, Madhya Pradesh in India.…
Shwe gas and pipelines projects
Myanmar
co financed by Bank of China, Bank of Communications, China Construction Bank, China Development Bank, CITIC Industrial Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
The ‘Shwe' (meaning ‘golden' in Burmese) projects entail exploitation of underwater natural gas deposits off the coast of western Burma's Arakan State and dual…
Alpha Coal project
Australia
co financed by China Development Bank, China Exim Bank
The Alpha Coal project is a AUD6 billion coal mine and export project that is proposed to be constructed in Queensland, Australia. The black thermal coal mine and associated…
Bauxite mine Niyamgiri Hills
India
co financed by China Exim Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
On October 5th, 2004 an official agreement was signed between the Orissa Mining Corporation (OMC) and Sterlite Industries, a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources plc, for the…
Kusile coal power plant
South Africa
co financed by
The Kusile coal fired power plant project is located in the province of Mpumalanga, in South Africa, initiated by Eskom, the state electricity company. With 4800 megawatt,…
Maules Creek coal mine
Australia
co financed by
Whitehaven Coal's Maules Creek mine is a part thermal, part semi soft coking coal mine being developed in the Gunnedah Basin in Northern New South Wales. It would produce…
Mountain top removal coal mining
United States
co financed by Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
Mountain top removal (MTR) mining is a form of strip mining in which coal companies use explosives to blast as much as 800 to 1,000 feet off the tops of mountains order to…
Patents on chimpanzees and other animals
- international -
co financed by
The European Patent Office (EPO) has, since 2010, granted five patents on chimpanzees to the companies Bionomics, Intrexon and Altor BioScience. The animals have been genetically…
Phulbari coal mine
Bangladesh
co financed by
The Phulbari coal project is a proposed open pit coal mine in northwest Bangladesh and includes the construction of at least one 500-MW power plant. At full production about…
Pacific Refinery
Ecuador
co financed by Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
The Ecuadorean government has been in negotiations with China since 2011 about the financing of a new project to increase domestic refining capacity. Despite Ecuador's rich…
Patuca III dam project (Piedras Amarillas)
Honduras
co financed by Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
The Patuca River is the second-longest river in Central America, flowing through the largest protected area of Honduras: the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve. The planned…
check dodgy deals on record

China

Population: 1,344 million (2011)

GDP: 7.31 trillion USD (2011)


working partners
Companies located in China
Shenhua Group
China
co financed by Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, Bank of Communications, China Construction Bank, China Development Bank, China Merchants Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
Shenhua Group is a wholly state-owned company founded in 1995 directly under the central government. It is the largest coal producing company in the world. It takes coal…
Companies abroad financed by banks from China
Anglo American
United Kingdom
co financed by Bank of China
Anglo American is a British multinational mining company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest producer of platinum, with around 40% of world…
APRIL
Indonesia
co financed by Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, China Construction Bank, China Development Bank, CITIC Industrial Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), Ping An Bank Co Ltd
Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings Limited, or APRIL, is Indonesia's second largest pulp and paper producer. It develops fibre plantations and it is the owner…
Asia Pulp and Paper - APP
Indonesia
co financed by Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, Bank of Communications, China Construction Bank, China Development Bank, Hua Xia Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
APP is the pulp and paper susbidiary of the Sinar Mas Group, and is one of the largest pulp and paper companies in the world. The Sinar Mas Group was founded in 1962…
BHP Billiton
Australia
co financed by Bank of China
BHP Billiton is the world's largest mining company. It occupies significant positions in major commodity businesses, including aluminium, energy coal and metallurgical coal,…
Bumi Resources
Indonesia
co financed by Bank of China, China Development Bank
Bumi Resources is currently the most significant coal producer in Indonesia with 2013 production at 80 million tonnes. It owns the Kaltim Prima Coal project in…
Enel
Italy
co financed by Bank of China, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
Enel is Italy's largest power company and Europe's second largest according to its generating capacity. Its interests stretch beyond Italy to 40 countries on four continents.…
Glencore
Switzerland
co financed by Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, China Construction Bank, China Development Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
Glencore plc (formerly Glencore Xstrata) is an Anglo-Swiss multinational commodity trading and mining company. The company was created through a merger of Glencore with Xstrata…
IOI Corporation
Malaysia
co financed by Bank of China
IOI Corporation, founded in 1969, is a Malaysian conglomerate involved in the property and plantation business, including oil palm cultivation. The company's specialty fats…
Rio Tinto
Australia
co financed by Bank of China
Rio Tinto is a mining and exploration company involved in each stage of metal and mineral production and processing. Rio Tinto is one of the largest publicly listed mining…
National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
India
co financed by China Construction Bank
National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest electricity producer in India. In 2014, its total installed capacity was of 42,964 MW (including 5,974 MW through Joint…
Arch Coal
United States
co financed by Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
Arch Coal is an American coal mining and processing company. The company mines, processes, and markets bituminous and sub-bituminous coal with low sulfur content in the United…
Areva
France
co financed by
Created in 2001 and 90% owned by the French state, this multinational conglomerate boasts of interests in every aspect of nuclear power from uranium mining to nuclear fuel…
Asian Agri
Indonesia
co financed by
Asian Agri is an Indonesian palm oil company, founded in 1979 by Sukanto Tanoto, a tycoon who also has interests in the paper, pulp, oil & gas industries through the…
BW Plantations
Indonesia
co financed by
BW Plantations is an Indonesian oil palm company that is involved in plantation development as well as crude palm oil production. Through its subsidiaries, BWPT owns…
Coal India
India
co financed by
Coal India is the biggest coal producer worldwide, majority-owned by the government of India. It was created in the 1970's when India's coal mining industry was nationalised…
EDF
France
co financed by
Like its rival and fellow French multinational AREVA, Électricité de France (EDF) is one of the biggest players in the global energy game. In fact, with more…
Elbit Systems
Israel
co financed by
Elbit Systems is a military equipment producer with a focus on defense electronics such as intelligence gathering systems.  It was established in 1967 and is headquartered…
Eletrobras
Brazil
co financed by
Founded in 1962, Eletrobras is an electric power holding company and the largest electricity generation and transmission company in Brazil. Through its subsidiaries it owns…
ENGIE
France
co financed by Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
ENGIE (known as GDF SUEZ until April 2015) is the largest independent power producer in the world. In 2013 it operated 600 power plants worldwide. It had 113.7 GW of installed…
Golden Agri-Resources - GAR
Singapore
co financed by China Development Bank
Golden Agri-Resources Ltd (GAR) is the world's second largest palm oil plantation company with a total planted area of 470,600 hectares (including smallholders) as at 30…
HAGL
Viet Nam
co financed by
Hoang Anh Enterprise is a Vietnamese company, founded by Chairman Doan NGuyen Duc in 1993, was converted to a Joint Stock Company and renamed as HAGL JSC in 2006. On 22 Dec…
Lockheed Martin
United States
co financed by
Lockheed Martin is one of the worlds largest arms-producing and military services companies. It is a global security company engaged in the research, design, development,…
RWE
Germany
co financed by
RWE is Europe's second largest electricity generator and one of Europe's five leading gas and electricity companies. Founded in 1898, the company is active in the generation,…
Samling
Hong Kong
co financed by
The Samling group, which is based in the Malaysian state of Sarawak on Borneo, is one of Malaysia's biggest logging companies and responsible for the ongoing destruction…
Sappi
South Africa
co financed by
Sappi Limited is a South African pulp and paper company with global operations. It was originally incorporated as South African Pulp and Paper Industries Limited in 1936,…
Sime Darby
Malaysia
co financed by
Sime Darby is a Malaysian multinational conglomerate that has operations in the plantations, property, healthcare, the energy and utilities sector. It was founded in 1910…
Sinar Mas
Indonesia
co financed by
Sinar Mas Group is one of the largest conglomerates in Indonesia. Its main activities are in the  Palm Oil and Pulp and Paper sectors, operating as well in Real Estate,…
Singapore Technologies Engineering
Singapore
co financed by
Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd (ST Engineering) is an integrated engineering group specialising in innovative solutions and services in the aerospace, electronics,…
Textron
United States
co financed by
Textron is a multi-industry company, consisting of numerous subsidiaries and operating units. One subsidiary is Textron Systems, which is active in the defence, homeland…
Vattenfall
Sweden
co financed by
Sweden's state-owned Vattenfall is Europe's sixth largest generator of electricity and largest producer of heat. In 2013, Vattenfall's total installed capacity across all…
check company profiles on record

China

Population: 1,344 million (2011)

GDP: 7.31 trillion USD (2011)


working partners
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007

China

Population: 1,344 million (2011)

GDP: 7.31 trillion USD (2011)


working partners

China

Population: 1,344 million (2011)

GDP: 7.31 trillion USD (2011)


working partners
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